Friday, November 16, 2012

Anna Freud Biography and Psychoanalysis Theory

Anna Freud Biography and Psychoanalysis Theory

Anna Freud Biography is really interesting as her life mainly deals with psychoanalysis theory and homosexuality. Anna Freud was the youngest daughter of Sigmund Freud and Martha Freud.  She was born in Vienna, Austria, on December 3, 1895. As a child she learned Hebrew, English, German, French and Italian. Right from the age of fourteen she witnessed debates at Psychoanalytic Society, at the age of nineteen she graduated and started working as a primary but in 1917 she stopped working because she suffered from tuberculosis. She had two suitors: Ernest Jones first and then Hans Lampl both were disapproved by his father.

Anna Freud and Sigmund Freud

In 1922, at the age of 27 with help of her father’s own resources and materials for psychoanalysis theory she published "On the Flagellation Fantasies and Illusions Day Care", on the various methods and mentioned how not to masturbate and joined the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. The study of the child is allowed to enter into the world of professions which is monopolized by men. Her best friend at the time was Eva Rosenfeld, who was displaced in his affection for Dorothy Burlingham, a rich American who had just separated from her husband, who was mentally ill. Dorothy had brought her two children with her; a boy and a girl.

In 1925, along with Helen Deutsch, Anna Freud founded the psychoanalytic institute in Vienna. In 1927 she published Introduction to Technical Analysis of Children, where she studied the role of media in children's development and developed her play therapy which faced ire of many of the great psychoanalysts. In the same year she spent her holidays with Dorothy, and bought a house together. In 1929 part of the fortune of Freud family was lost with the crash of the stock market due to the global financial crisis (at that time great depression was going on). Parallel Dollfuss then Austrian Prime Minister was assassinated in 1931 by Nazi Germany because he sought Austrian Independence. Jewish emigration to London intensified after that because of anti-Semitism policy of Hitler against the Jews.
In 1931, at the age of thirty-six Anna Freud was named second vice president of the Psychoanalytic Society, from 1934 to 1936 she wrote on “The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense”, where she studied repression and unconscious process.

In 1938 shortly before the annexation of Austria to the Nazi Germany, Anna Freud was arrested and his father's house was ransacked. Despite the growing anti-Semitism, Freud refused to leave Vienna thanks to his fame his house had seemed untouchable, but the three days later after her arrest they decide to leave Vienna and within three months the Freud Family settled in London, where Sigmund Freud died of cancer in 1939.

At the beginning of the war Dorothy Burlingham had a brief affair with a young man. Anna Freud wrote: "For my letters know that I was afraid, afraid of complications, fear of being forced to a separation, but until now I had not realized that could really lose, and that the consequences could ruin my life and our board”. In 1941, Anna and Dorothy founded a War Nursery in Hampstead (Hampstead War Nurseries). It was a home for children that separated from their parents because of war. The couple described their experience in books Young Children in Time of War, 1942 War and Children, 1943; And Infants without families, 1945.

In 1951 Anna Freud reported having been cured the homosexuality in men but did not preserve their case studies. In 1952 the couple opened a clinic in child psychoanalysis (Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic). Dorothy died in 1979. Biographers have described the relationship of Anna Freud and Dorothy as a "perfect friendship" with a high degree of privacy. Anna Freud refused to rumors that she and Dorothy were lesbian lovers, although in a letter declaring her not to tell his father wanted "things to shame."

There are two significant points:

1) The grandson of Dorothy described them as "the ultimate oxymoron: lesbian intellectuals". They believed homosexuality was an irresistible impulse of carnal enjoyment with the same sex, so the grandson thought it was amazing that between the two there was sexual contact.

2) Anna Freud reported heterosexuality has succeeded in males.
She did not attempt to reconcile her homosexuality patients as recommended by his father but didn’t as she thought that sexuality homosexuality was more desirable than heterosexual, at least in men. Anna Freud probably not has considered herself a lesbian, who has otherwise categorized her feelings for Dorothy.

Anna Freud died in London, aged 87 in 1972.


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Thursday, November 15, 2012

Anna Freud Adolescence Theory

Anna Freud Adolescence Theory


Anna Freud is a daughter of a great psychologist Sigmund Freud.  Anna Freud devoted herself even more than his father to study the period of puberty and its influence in shaping the character, making further interpretation of the dynamics of adolescent development in human beings and effects on human behavior psychology.

Anna Freud

She investigated the period of childhood, puberty and adolescence considering the relations of the three instances of the psychic apparatus; the self or reality principle, the identity and the superego or instinct or conscience. For Anna Freud adolescence is developing sexual functions has a direct psychological influence on personality and psychological behavior which causes imbalance resulting in internal conflicts in adolescents.

During the process of development of the superego during the latency stage, the child assimilates the values and morals of the people important to them which are been identified based on values, upbringings and life experiences; such as his father. So the fear of the outside world becomes inner anxiety produced by the superego or conscience and guilt whenever their behavior does not match your sense of right and wrong. Therefore, this anxiety is the result of the identification of the moral value system of parents and significant other persons of authority and the incorporation of this structure.

The imbalance that produces changes of adolescence increases aggressive tendencies and the penchant for clutter, dirt and exhibitionism. Anna Freud argues that the onset of puberty is a second Oedipus complex that produces the same fear of castration in boys and penis envy in women than in the first. In this period the Oedipus impulses can fantasize and superego anxiety drives the ego defense mechanisms are repression, denial and displacement, returning libidinal impulses against it, causing fear, anxiety and neurotic symptoms.

This condition leads to behaviors ranging from pregenital perverse sexual gratification and aggressive behavior; even in criminals, in the case of this triumph, the traits of asceticism and intellectualization and accentuation of neurotic symptoms and inhibitions when success is the self. Asceticism is because of adolescent mistrust against instinctual wishes that transcends sexuality and comes to food, sleep and dress. Just as the rise of intellectual interest increases and preference for abstract interests rather than concrete.

Anna Freud theory assumed that a harmonious balance between the person, the ego and the superego is possible and shown by most normal teenagers. So the factors that influence adolescent conflicts are: the forces of instinctual drives that are determined by organic processes, the ego's capacity to overcome these forces or giving in to them, depending on this choice of character and superego; and effectiveness of the defense mechanisms of the ego.

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Albert Bandura Biography and Theory


Albert Bandura Biography and Theory


Albert Bandura’s biography and psychology theory is very interesting as it deal with adolescents and aggression which every person in the world deals with. Albert Bandura was born December on 4, 1925 in Mundare, Northern Alberta, Canada. He attended a small rural school to finish his high school and later went to work during the summer holidays; the work which he used to take up was filling holes on the Alaska Highway in the Yukon.

Albert Bandura
He studied psychology at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver; He finished his graduation or bachelor’s degree in 1949. In 1949, he moved to the University of Iowa where he received his doctorate in 1952 and where he met his future wife, who worked as a professor of nursing at University of Iowa. Years later he completed he achieved his post-doctorate at the Wichita Guidance Center in Wichita, Kansas.

Albert Bandura went to Stanford University in 1953 as a professor and began his research on aggressive adolescents. In 1973, he was appointed president of the American Psychological Association (APA) and in 1980 he was awarded for distinguished scientific contributions that he had made during his life. Currently he is working in the Stanford University, where he was rewarded in 1974 with the founding of a professorship. He gives speeches and lectures in many seminars on aggression, personal and social change that effects human behavior psychology.

Albert Bandura theory is based on behaviorism but adds something more based on his research on aggression in adolescents: states that the environment causes behavior (behaviorism), but also because the environment behavior. This idea called reciprocal determinism: The world and the behavior of a person causing another.

He later stated that personality is formed by the interaction of three things: environment, behavior and psychological processes of the individual. The latter are the ability in which we have formed images in our mind and in language and therefore moves away from behaviorism to make room for the imagination, so it is somehow an initiator of cognitivism or cognitive psychology. This new direction takes you to theorize observational learning and self-regulation.

Albert Bandura term observational learning or modeling studied as bobo doll: doll is an inflatable that has its weight in the base and can be hit as much but it does not fall down but wobbles. He saw some kids from kindergarten through movies as a young beat this doll while insulting him and then was not punished for it. The children saw the doll and were very happy to let them play with this doll behaved equally aggressive in the young film. The children had to imitate the behavior of the young even though they had never played before as well. Thanks to this research Albert Bandura developed his famous theory of social learning.
For this research Albert Bandura noted that one need to have attention, retain or remember what we have addressed through mental images or verbal descriptions and finally, play what we observed in our behavior. You also need to have motivation to imitate the behavior.

According to Albert Bandura one has three steps: self-observation, we compare what we have with a standard; auto-response (if comparison is positive then our behavior rewards ourselves. If the comparison is negative we punish ourselves). This concept of self-regulation is closely linked with self-concept: if we see over the years that we have acted in accordance with our objectives and we have received rewards of high self confidence. Albert Bandura’s whole theory encompasses the practice of self-therapy, which is quite effective in relatively simple problems such as study habits but his best-known therapy is the modeling: if a person with a disorder seen someone with the same problem you are trying to combat it effectively then first learn by imitation of the second.

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Franz Anton Mesmer Hypnosis and Biography

Franz Anton Mesmer Hypnosis and Biography


Franz Anton Mesmer was a German doctor who was born on May 23, 1734 in Radolfzell (Iznang, Germany) and died on 5th March, 1815 in Meersburg, Germany. He was the son of a bishop of Constance Ranger. He studied theology, philosophy, law and finally obtained the title of Doctor of Medicine in Vienna, in 1764, with a thesis on the influence of the planets on the human body.
Franz Anton Mesmer married the rich mature widow of van Bosch, who lived had on the outskirts of Vienna in a luxurious palace which was the scene of his life and work, his marriage to Anna Maria von Posch led him to use her wealth which allowed him to live the rest of his life without financial worries and fund his research activities.

Franz Anton Mesmer
In the summer of 1774 he learned that an English lady always carried a magnet which completely alleviated the suffering of violent cramps in the stomach. Mesmer had built a magnet which was as same that was carried by the English lady which was applied to several patients with identical problems or sufferings. Based on this he wrote and introduced a proprietary system of healing diseases based on methods he called "magnetic" and they were actually suggestive. Franz Anton Mesmer developed his doctrine of animal magnetism, based on the assumption that each agency had a magnetic fluid that could be transmitted to others.

For some years his miraculous cure of the sick people by magnetism procedure led to long queues of people around his mansion. By the order of Empress Maria Eugenia he tried to cure blindness of a blind young artist who was very much loved by the whole city and protected by the Empress. The girl named Maria Theresa Paradies moved by Mesmer desire to heal her and decided to live in his residence there, and after months of stay, Mesmer had published an article in the newspapers claiming that she was recovering remarkably and would soon get back her vision. When it was learnt that the news was a fraud, Franz Anton Mesmer was discredited which led him to sell their possessions and returned to Swabia, Germany.

Franz Anton Mesmer Hypnosis and magnetism therapy was rejected by Austrian doctors, which led him to move to Paris, where he obtained an extraordinary success that nobles fought his favors and gave him large sums of money.
His attempt for getting recognition of medical discipline for magnetism healing led Louis XVIII to commission a formal investigation into his findings to a medical school in Paris. The committee consisted of prominent figures such as chemist Lavoisier and the American physicist Benjamin Franklin. The investigations ruled out that magnetism sessions lacked any practical effect and frequently produced great sexual promiscuity situations. With these findings magnetism fell into disrepute and followers began to leave the magnetic clinic.

In Paris, the Marquis de Puysegur who was one of the nobles who attended the sessions of Mesmer when trying to play on their own sessions, He encountered an unusual fact: hypnotism stuff then develop in depth which was later known as Franz Anton Mesmer hypnosis. Forgotten by the Parisian nobles he remained in this city until he feared for his life in French Revolution. He sold his properties and moved to Switzerland, and again tried to open another clinic in Vienna, where he was banned by police who expelled him from the country.

While in France the Revolution was over but the people did not forget mesmerism fever, not the case in Germany, where it appeared a host of magnetizing and visionaries, including himself had counted Goethe, who while working on the wording of the first part of Fausto, experimented with telepathy and hypnotism. In the Prussia of Frederick William II, mesmeric magnetism merged with a number of occult practices, including spiritism and invocations to the dead, especially in the "Circle of Harmony". Chancellor of Prussia himself Hardember and academics from the University of Berlin surrendered to fashion and they even invite Mesmer to direct research on magnetism.

With Growing fashion and enthusiasm too many voices rose to absurd qualified and deception all in occult phenomena that often hid true sexual orgies. Frederick William III, who against his predecessor felt the dreadfulness of the magnetic circles, sent police against them for crack down and within months Prussian society regained consciousness. Soon after that in 1815, Franz Anton Mesmer died in his retirement at Meersburg (Swabia), where he had spent his last years away from fame while serving as a rural doctor.

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Tuesday, November 13, 2012

Edward L Thorndike Theory and Biography

Edward L Thorndike Theory and Biography

Edward L Thorndike biography is really very interesting as he one of the noted psychologists whose works and theories are on the behavior and psychology of the animals. Edward Lee Thorndike was born on August 31, 1874 in Wiliamsburg, Massachusetts, United States. 1He went to Wesleyan University in Connecticut and completed his graduation psychology in the year 1895. After completing his graduation he then went to Harvard University for research studies so that he can pursue Ph.D., where his guide was William James. Under the guidance of William James he got doctorate degree in psychology. After completing his doctorate at Harvard, he worked as a tutor of psychology at the University of Columbia, New York and he was in the same university until he retired in 1941. Between 1942 and 1943 he held the chair of William James at Harvard University. He died on August 9, 1949 in Montrose, New York.

He had great interest in learning researching theories and was one of the major initiators of behaviorism or behavioral psychology. Edward Lee Thorndike was not convinced by the idea that animals had remarkable intelligence. He claimed that for every dog who finds his way back home, there are perhaps a hundred that are lost.  Edward Thorndike believed that animals do not reason or solve problems on the basis of their intelligence but in a more or less mechanical manner or learning manner through trial and error. Thus, behaviors are useful because they are often used in the printed nervous system.

Edward L Thorndike considered that learning is based on a series of connections between a stimulus and a response. This connection is maintained and becomes stronger as having benefits for the body. This idea was the basis for what was later called instrumental conditioning. Thorndike first, found these ideas with animals but later applied to children and adolescents. He quickly used as a new method was very much valued in education and work in educational psychology at the time.

Based on Edward Thorndike’s new learning he defined some points for his theory or some laws after experimenting with his famous cats in boxes, where they were to escape problem:

Law of Effect: If the connection between stimulus and response is rewarded this connection becomes stronger and is more likely to occur in the future, but instead punishment weakens the response. He himself found that in all cases the punishment is sometimes negative but also is a source of pleasure (e.g. sadomasochistic, self harm).

Practice Act: The more times that connection between stimulus and response will strengthen the union.

Preparation or disposal Act: There are certain predetermined connections are more biologically therefore is easier to be given some others.

Edward Lee Thorndike has also defined what was to him the intelligence: it is simply a set of specific factors (skills) totally independent, without any connection between them. He wrote a lot of books, pamphlets and articles for various magazines. It should be borne in mind that the whole theory of learning has a mechanistic interpretation as it excludes all teleology in person.

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