Anna Freud Biography and Psychoanalysis Theory
Anna Freud Biography is really interesting as her life mainly deals with psychoanalysis theory and homosexuality. Anna Freud was the youngest daughter of Sigmund Freud and Martha Freud. She was born in Vienna, Austria, on December 3, 1895. As a child she learned Hebrew, English, German, French and Italian. Right from the age of fourteen she witnessed debates at Psychoanalytic Society, at the age of nineteen she graduated and started working as a primary but in 1917 she stopped working because she suffered from tuberculosis. She had two suitors: Ernest Jones first and then Hans Lampl both were disapproved by his father.
|Anna Freud and Sigmund Freud|
In 1922, at the age of 27 with help of her father’s own resources and materials for psychoanalysis theory she published "On the Flagellation Fantasies and Illusions Day Care", on the various methods and mentioned how not to masturbate and joined the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. The study of the child is allowed to enter into the world of professions which is monopolized by men. Her best friend at the time was Eva Rosenfeld, who was displaced in his affection for Dorothy Burlingham, a rich American who had just separated from her husband, who was mentally ill. Dorothy had brought her two children with her; a boy and a girl.
In 1925, along with Helen Deutsch, Anna Freud founded the psychoanalytic institute in Vienna. In 1927 she published Introduction to Technical Analysis of Children, where she studied the role of media in children's development and developed her play therapy which faced ire of many of the great psychoanalysts. In the same year she spent her holidays with Dorothy, and bought a house together. In 1929 part of the fortune of Freud family was lost with the crash of the stock market due to the global financial crisis (at that time great depression was going on). Parallel Dollfuss then Austrian Prime Minister was assassinated in 1931 by Nazi Germany because he sought Austrian Independence. Jewish emigration to London intensified after that because of anti-Semitism policy of Hitler against the Jews.
In 1931, at the age of thirty-six Anna Freud was named second vice president of the Psychoanalytic Society, from 1934 to 1936 she wrote on “The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense”, where she studied repression and unconscious process.
In 1938 shortly before the annexation of Austria to the Nazi Germany, Anna Freud was arrested and his father's house was ransacked. Despite the growing anti-Semitism, Freud refused to leave Vienna thanks to his fame his house had seemed untouchable, but the three days later after her arrest they decide to leave Vienna and within three months the Freud Family settled in London, where Sigmund Freud died of cancer in 1939.
At the beginning of the war Dorothy Burlingham had a brief affair with a young man. Anna Freud wrote: "For my letters know that I was afraid, afraid of complications, fear of being forced to a separation, but until now I had not realized that could really lose, and that the consequences could ruin my life and our board”. In 1941, Anna and Dorothy founded a War Nursery in Hampstead (Hampstead War Nurseries). It was a home for children that separated from their parents because of war. The couple described their experience in books Young Children in Time of War, 1942 War and Children, 1943; And Infants without families, 1945.
In 1951 Anna Freud reported having been cured the homosexuality in men but did not preserve their case studies. In 1952 the couple opened a clinic in child psychoanalysis (Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic). Dorothy died in 1979. Biographers have described the relationship of Anna Freud and Dorothy as a "perfect friendship" with a high degree of privacy. Anna Freud refused to rumors that she and Dorothy were lesbian lovers, although in a letter declaring her not to tell his father wanted "things to shame."
There are two significant points:
1) The grandson of Dorothy described them as "the ultimate oxymoron: lesbian intellectuals". They believed homosexuality was an irresistible impulse of carnal enjoyment with the same sex, so the grandson thought it was amazing that between the two there was sexual contact.
2) Anna Freud reported heterosexuality has succeeded in males.
She did not attempt to reconcile her homosexuality patients as recommended by his father but didn’t as she thought that sexuality homosexuality was more desirable than heterosexual, at least in men. Anna Freud probably not has considered herself a lesbian, who has otherwise categorized her feelings for Dorothy.
Anna Freud died in London, aged 87 in 1972.